Cathy Malchiodi is a prolific writer in the creative art therapies. The following is a book excerpt from chapter 4 of her HANDBOOK OF ART THERAPY.

Several figures in the field of art therapy emerged in the second half of the 20th century
who paved the way for the integration of psychoanalytic and analytic theories
with art therapy. The most notable perhaps was Margaret Naumburg (1966) who
used spontaneous drawings within the framework of psychoanalysis. She coined the
term “dynamically oriented art therapy” to describe her belief that the unconscious
can be communicated through symbolic expression. Naumburg noted that art expression
made it possible for a person to place unconscious material directly into an
image, whereas in psychoanalysis, visual experiences must be transformed into verbal
communication. “Art therapy recognizes that the unconscious as expressed in a patient’s
phantasies, daydreams and fears can be projected more immediately in pictures
than words” (Naumburg, 1966, p. 3).


Cathy A. Malchiodi, ATR, LPAT, LPCC, is an art therapist, expressive art therapist, and clinical mental health counselor, as well as an internationally recognized authority on art therapy with children, adults, and families. She is a member of the Board of Directors of the American Art Therapy Association (AATA) and is the past editor of Art Therapy: Journal of the AATA. She has received numerous honors for her work, including recognition from the AATA, the Kennedy Center for the Arts, Very Special Arts, and the China Association for the Handicapped. An author of several books, including The Art Therapy Sourcebook, Understanding Children’s Drawings, and Breaking the Silence: Art Therapy with Children from Violent Homes, and editor of Medical Art Therapy with Children and Medical Art Therapy with Adults, she has written more than 60 articles and chapters and has given more than 160 presentations on art therapy throughout the United States and abroad. She currently serves as editor for Trauma and Loss: Research and Interventions, and is on the faculty of the National Institute for Trauma and Loss and the Graduate Program in Expressive Therapies at the University of Louisville.

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